The sensory organs of a cat have characteristics that enable them to be excellent hunters. Other mammals do not have that keen eyesight or the capabilities of a cat’s eye.
What is very specific to them are eyes that are adjusted to dim light, and such conditions are no problem for them. Specifically, cat eyes capture and use every bit of light available to them to help them navigate. Whether in the home or outside of the home, light helps them navigate.
The cat’s retina is not proportionally larger than the human eye, but receives an unusually large amount of light. This is due to the much larger cornea, pupil and lens. Another advantage of this shape is the rounder and shorter eyeball that widens the field of view. By folding the field of view, a stereoscopic effect is created.
Function of the cat’s eye
The function of a cat’s eye is comparable to a camera, though it is more accurate than the eye. The light passes through a movable aperture (through the iris in the iris) that controls the amount of light that enters and is directed by the lens. Unlike a camera where the lens moves back and forth to change the focus, the lens in the cat’s eye changes it by changing its shape and pulling the muscle.
Eventually, the light falls on the retina (in analog cameras, it was a film), which sends impulses through the optic nerves to the visual center in the brain. Like the human, the cat’s retina contains two types of sensory cells: sticks and cones. Sticks provide good vision in the dark and sensitivity to low light, and cones give the power of resolution, that is, the ability to get two separate images from two different sources.
The cat’s eyes have slightly more sticks and fewer cones than the human. Because of this, cats are better able to see at low light but lack better resolution.
The good and bad sides of cat eyes
Like humans, cats are seen binocularly. This means that parts of the field of view of each of her two eyes overlap. Such overlap is necessary for stereoscopic performance; if one eye only works with a field of view that does not overlap with the field of view of the other, the brain cannot create a three-dimensional image.
The ability to focus is developed in cats as well as in humans. When the eye focuses on an object, the shape of the lens changes with the help of thin muscles behind the iris (a process known as focusing). By tightening these muscles, the lens flexes and the object closer to the eye comes into focus. When relaxed, the lens is straightened and objects are distant in the focus.
As far as color recognition is concerned, cats have been thought to be color blind for some time and can only see in shades of black, gray and white. Research has shown that cats can be trained to differentiate colors, although it may take a long time. Many scientists claim that cats do not pay attention to colors, and although they see them, they do not attach much importance to them.
Cat and man have roughly the same ability to determine where the sound originates from. They distinguish between two sounds separated by an angle of five degrees with an accuracy of approximately 75 percent.
The cat uses a sophisticated external ear shape to gather information about differences in sound quality, and these differences help it pinpoint its target location. Sound waves are collected by a funnel-shaped outer ear and conducted to the eardrum. This membrane flickers like skin on a drum and thus moves three thin bones lying in the middle ear. Further, their movement is transmitted to the entrance to the inner ear of the so-called. lobby. Subsequently, sound waves reach the cochlea, a fluid-filled spiral chamber system. These chambers contain the delicate Corti organ (named after the Italian anatomist Alfonso Corti), which converts sounds into electrical impulses and transmits them through the auditory nerve to the brain.
There are two large echo chambers in the cat’s skull that give the animal a high sensitivity to sounds of certain frequencies, such as noises produced by small animals or cat prey. Like dogs, cats hear high-frequency sounds much better than we do. In addition, the cat has excellent high-frequency resolution power. In the best age of his life, he can pinpoint sounds that vary by a fifth or a tenth of a ton.
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